Utilidad de la eritropoyetina en el paciente quemado grave con anemia. Revisión del tema

Guillermo de la Cruz García

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Fundamento: La quemadura grave representa el tipo de agresión biológica más severo que puede sufrir el organismo y ponen en peligro la vida del paciente por el permanente riesgo de sepsis y falla multisistémica progresiva. La anemia incide en la morbilidad y mortalidad del quemado en estado grave; su tratamiento ha pasado por diversos momentos en la historia y su corrección depende de las transfusiones sanguíneas que aumentan el riesgo de complicaciones y reacciones adversas.

Objetivo: Actualizar los conocimientos sobre la utilidad de la eritropoyetina en el tratamiento de la anemia en el quemado grave.

Desarrollo: La gravedad de la quemadura está determinada por la intensidad de la temperatura y la duración de la exposición. La anemia es una de las complicaciones más frecuentes en los quemados graves y su tratamiento en ocasiones se limita al uso de transfusiones de sangre, sin embrago la eritropoyetina es una alternativa terapéutica; pertenece a la familia de las citoquinas, alcanza la médula ósea, donde estimula células progenitoras cuyo objetivo es lograr su transformación en eritrocitos. La administración de eritropoyetina humana recombinante en el paciente quemado grave con anemia se considera eficaz, ya que al estimular los mecanismos de la eritropoyesis, produce una elevación paulatina pero mantenida del hematocrito acompañándose de otros efectos beneficiosos.

Conclusiones: La eritropoyetina humana por sus características farmacológicas, se muestra como una opción de tratamiento para el paciente quemado grave con anemia al permitir la recuperación de manera sostenida de los valores de hemoglobina con un mínimo de complicaciones, disminuye el uso de transfusiones de sangre que pueden aumentar la morbilidad de estos enfermos.

Palabras clave

quemado grave, anemia, eritropoyetina humana

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